City 9. Renewable Energy Strategy

9         Renewable Energy Strategy

Strategic Aim: To promote and facilitate all forms of renewable energies and improvements in energy efficiencies as a response to climate change. 

9.1       Introduction

Renewable energy sources are defined here as inexhaustible natural resources which occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment. These sources include the wind, oceans, plant life and falling water.

This Renewable Energy Strategy was prepared in conjunction with the Carlow-Kilkenny Energy Agency, having regard to the Methodology for Local Authority Renewable Energy Strategies[1].


9.2       Carlow-Kilkenny Energy Agency

The Carlow Kilkenny Energy Agency was established to provide sustainable energy information, support and services to the people of Carlow and Kilkenny, to local businesses and community groups and to the Local Authorities.  The objectives of the Agency are achieved through five focus areas:


  1. Energy awareness and dissemination campaigns 
  2. Energy Management for the Councils 
  3. Energy efficiency and renewable energy projects 
  4. Sustainable energy training 
  5. Energy Policy Development 


The CKEA has over ten years experience in supporting energy efficient and renewable energy projects for public and private clients, in particular for community developments. 


9.3       Kilkenny Sustainable Energy Forum

The Kilkenny Sustainable Energy Forum was set up in early 2007, as the result of an action identified under the County Development Board Strategy 2002-2012.  This Forum is composed of various statutory bodies, non-governmental organisations and industry and construction representatives, amongst others.  The Forum aims to promote the use of sustainable energy in Kilkenny, by supporting sustainable energy initiatives, providing best practice examples and through advocacy. 

9.4       Policy context

The main driver for the implementation of renewable energy policy is the Renewable Energy Directive[2].  Ireland is legally obliged to ensure that by 2020, at least 16% of all energy consumed in the state is from renewable sources, with a sub-target of 10% in the transport sector.  This directive requires that each Member State adopt a national renewable energy action plan (NREAP) to be submitted to the European Commission.

Ireland submitted its National Renewable Energy Action Plan[3] to the European Commission in July 2010. The plan set out national targets for the share of energy from renewable sources consumed in transport, electricity and heating and cooling in 2020, with actions to meet the overall national target (Figure 9.1: National and European policy drivers). 

The Strategy for Renewable Energy 2012 - 2020[4] sets out the Government’s approach to the development of renewables in terms of strategic goals and key actions.  Strategic goals include progressively more energy from wind power and a sustainable Bioenergy sector.  Renewables in Ireland are supported by means of the Renewable Energy Feed in tariff (REFIT)[5].  REFIT was first announced in 2006 and three REFIT schemes have been rolled out to date, which all have provided support for renewable technologies. 











9.4.1       South East Regional Authority Bioenergy Implementation Plan

At regional level, Bioenergy Implementation Plan 2008-2013[6] has been produced by the South East Regional Authority.  This set a target of 5% of Total Final Consumption in the region to be provided by bio-energy by 2010, to increase to 17% by 2020.   This Plan is being updated at present.  The overall objective of the project is to raise awareness and to increase the production and consumption of bio-energy in the Region.


The Councils will support the implementation of national and regional renewable energy targets and work with all relevant agencies to support the development of alternative forms of energy.  


Renewable Energy

Kilkenny City and Environs is limited in its capacity to generate renewable wind energy.  Therefore the main sources of renewable energy may include, solar energy, bioenergy, ground source heating systems and through the built environment. 


9.5       Wind energy

The sun heats the earth unevenly, creating thermal air currents. In order to achieve equal temperatures around the earth these air pockets move about the earth as global wind. Energy that travels in the wind can be captured and converted to provide electricity through turbines. The potential for generation of wind energy in Kilkenny City is likely to be confined to smaller scale domestic and/or local level wind energy production in conjunction with other renewable energy sources as opposed to large scale windfarm development.


A Wind Energy strategy was prepared for the County as part of the Draft County Development Plan 2014-2020.  Kilkenny City & Environs falls under the ‘Rest of County’ category and therefore individual turbines and auto producer turbines will be considered.


(a) Individual Wind Turbines

It is recognised that landowners may wish to harness wind energy for private use.  Planning applications for individual wind turbines (subject to a limit of 1 per holding) shall be considered in the city and environs. 


S.I. No. 83 of 2007[7], Planning and Development Regulations set out that a single wind turbine which meets the standards as set out (to include turbine height not more than thirteen metres, and rotor diameter of six metres and other standards as detailed in the Regulations), is considered to be “exempted development” which does not require planning permission when placed within the curtilage of a house. 

S.I. No. 235 of 2008[8], Planning and Development Regulations set out that a single wind turbine which meets the standards as set out (to include turbine height not more than twenty metres, and rotor diameter of eight metres and other standards as detailed in the Regulations), is considered to be “exempted development” which does not require planning permission when placed within the curtilage of an agricultural holding. 

(b) Autoproducer

An “Autoproducer” is where an industry/large energy user uses a wind turbine to feed/supplement its own energy consumption.


Note: S.I. No. 235 of 2008[9], Planning and Development Regulations set out that a single wind turbine which meets the standards as set out (to include turbine height not more than twenty metres, and rotor diameter of eight metres and other standards as detailed in the Regulations), is considered to be “exempted development” which does not require planning permission when placed within the curtilage of an industrial or light business premises building. 

These will be considered throughout the county subject to the following:

  • The location of the turbine is within the curtilage of the facility or immediately adjacent.
  • The site already contains significant development to reduce the visual impact of the turbine(s).

Development Management


9.6       Bioenergy

Bioenergy may be defined as the energy derived from biomass.  Biomass is defined in the Renewable Energy Directive as the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste.  Biomass can be used to generate electricity, heat and transport fuels.

In the domestic or small scale context, Biomass systems comprise of the following key components:-

- Fuel delivery

- Storage facilities

- Stoves/Boilers – to provide heating and hot water to the building

- Flue / ash extraction

- Connecting pipework

The SEAI publishes a mapping resource, the Bioenergy Mapping System[11], which gives information on the location of potential and actual bioenergy crops, forestry, biomass and waste locations.  Kilkenny Local Authorities recognise the need to support the development of bioenergy resources.


9.6.1       Wood Energy Supply Chain

Wood fuels are available in a number of generic forms.  These include wood wastes, forest residues and energy crops.  Some wood fuels are processed to provide a higher quality and more user friendly product such as wood pellets and wood chips.    There are a number of non-domestic establishments in the city using wood fuels, including the following: 

  • Kilkenny College, Castlecomer Road has installed a boiler fuelled by wood pellets.
  • The WaterShed (Leisure Centre) uses a woodchip boiler. 


9.6.2       Energy crops

The main commonly grown energy crop in Ireland is Miscanthus.  Miscanthus is a grass which can be used as a fuel in special Miscanthus boilers which are made to handle and burn it efficiently.  It can also be burnt in Biomass-Combined Heat and Power units and for co-firing in power stations. 

Statistics on the growth of energy crops are available from the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine which operates a Bioenergy Grant Scheme for Willow and Miscanthus[12].  Between 2007 and 2010 a total of 223 hectares of land were subject to a Miscanthus establishment grant, which equates to over 7% of the entire country’s Miscanthus area. 


9.6.3       Liquid Biofuels

Liquid biofuels are derived from biomass crops or by-products that are suitable for use in vehicle engines or heating systems.  Biofuels can be considered as potential replacements or extenders for mineral fuels such as diesel or petrol. They can be sub-divided into a number of categories, the principal two being:

1.       Vegetable oils/animal fats which can be used in unprocessed form or converted to biodiesel;

2.       Bio-ethanol produced from the fermentation of organic materials such as sugar beet, cereals, etc.


There is one biofuel supplier in the county; Goldstar Oils Ltd. in Oldcourt, Inistioge.  This company manufactures Pure Plant Oil (PPO).  PPO is a form of biodiesel which is produced by pressing oilseeds from rapeseed and filtering the resulted oil.  Other oils like soya or palm oil are also possible feedstocks.  The oil can be used as a fuel in a diesel engine whose engine has been fitted with an appropriate modification kit. 


9.6.4       Anaerobic Digestion

The process of Anaerobic Digestion (AD) involves the breakdown of organic matter by bacteria and enzymes in an oxygen-free environment.  The end product of this process is biogas which is a gas with high methane content.  This methane can be captured and burned to produce heat, electricity or a combination of the two.


It is used widely in the agricultural sector in the form of small on-farm digesters producing biogas to heat farmhouses and other farm buildings. The main types of organic material feedstock used in AD are:

• sewage sludge

• farm slurry

• municipal solid waste (MSW)


An Anaerobic Digestion plant typically comprises of:

- a digester tank

- buildings to house ancillary equipment such as a generator, a biogas storage tank

- a flare stack (3-10m in height)

- associated pipework.


Plants can vary in scale from small schemes treating the waste from an individual farm through medium-sized centralised facilities, to sizeable industrial AD plants handling large quantities of municipal solid waste.


The Camphill community in Ballytobin, near Callan, uses an anaerobic digester which performs centralised co-digestion of farm slurry with mixed food waste.  This generates energy (heat and power) to meet the requirements of the 90 people living in Ballytobin Camphill Community.  


9.6.5       Combined Heat and Power

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a technology that uses the energy produced in the combustion of fuel to produce both useful heat energy and electricity.  CHP can refer to gas fired CHP or to biomass CHP.  Biomass CHP is a form of renewable energy.  In Ireland most CHP plants burn gas.  CHP Systems will comprise the following key components:-


- Fuel delivery and storage facilities (if fuelled by biomass)

- Boiler/turbine

- Connecting pipework

- Heat exchanger/heat recovery generator


CHP plants are available in a range of scales, from micro-CHP domestic applications, small scale CHP plants, medium size plants serving an office block to large industrial applications and CHP plants serving district heating schemes.  There are no medium or large scale CHP plants in the county. 

9.6.6       Energy Recovery from Waste

As our need for energy increases, the recovery of energy trapped in waste materials can benefit the environment by replacing energy from non-renewable sources.  Even after extensive recycling, the residual waste stream still has a high combustible content available for energy recovery. 

The Joint Waste Management Plan for the South East Region 2006 – 2011 sets out the policies in relation to energy from waste, and a key policy of that Plan is that an integrated waste facility incorporating thermal treatment and energy recovery will be developed in the region.   (The JWMP was evaluated in 2012 and the outcome of that evaluation is that the Plan requires to be reviewed. The review will take place in 2013.)

Development Management Guidance

  • Anyone considering a bioenergy project should consult the South East Regional Authority of Ireland’s current Bioenergy Implementation Plan
  • For Kilkenny City and Environs should a project for a bioenergy plant come forward it will be directed to locate on industrial areas or on lands which are reserved for industrial uses in the development plan.
  • Any commercial bioenergy plant should be close to the point of demand and be served by public roads with sufficient capacity to absorb increased traffic flows and adjacent to transport corridors.


Bioenergy objective

  • Investigate the feasibility of installing anaerobic digestion facilities at the Purcellsinch wastewater treatment plant.


9.7       Hydro Power

Hydroelectricity is electricity derived from the power harnessed from the flow of falling water, typically from fast-flowing streams and rivers, impoundment, or in the form of pumped hydro schemes.

Carlow-Kilkenny Energy Agency published a report on hydro power potential in the county, entitled Reclaiming Lost Power, Kilkenny’s Potential Hydro power sites in 2010[13].  According to that report, Inch Mills on the Sion Road in Kilkenny, just outside the development boundary, operates a hydroelectric scheme with a capacity of 40 kW. 

In 1985, the Department of Energy published a document entitled Small-scale Hydroelectric Potential of Ireland[14]. In this, 32 potential hydro sites were identified in County Kilkenny. Reclaiming Lost Power assessed these 32 sites and identified 20 sites for prioritisation.  One site was identified on the River Nore within the City’s development boundary, at Dukesmeadows, on the site of the former Ormonde Woolen Mill. 

Development Management Guidance

In the assessment of proposals for hydroelectric schemes the Councils will have regard to the provisions of the Guidelines on the Planning, Design, Construction and Operation of Small Scale Hydro-Electric Schemes and Fisheries[15], or any amending or replacement document.  In addition, it is recommended that anyone considering a hydro-electrical project should consult the following documents (or any updates thereto);


In addition to the effects on fisheries as covered by the Guidelines, possible impacts from hydro energy developments are outlined in Table 9.1 below. 


Table 9.1: Summary of potential impacts from hydro-power scheme


Potential impact


Impact on character of landscape, scenic views (turbine houses, embankments, structures, access routes and power lines)


Impact on habitats, fish populations and protected species such as otters and bats, and conservation objectives of  special areas of conservation (River Nore in Kilkenny City)


Possibility of pollution, effect on water quality and regime, must show compliance with River Basin Management Plan


During construction and operation


There may be underwater archaeology present

Architectural heritage

Many weirs and mills are protected structures

Taken from Generating your own Energy, Hydropower, Welsh Assembly Government, 2011 Pages 5-7


An Environmental Impact Assessment may be required for some hydro electric schemes in accordance with Schedule 5 Part 2(h) of the Planning and Development Regulations 2001.  An EIS may also be required for schemes not meeting this threshold, but where the Council considers that the potential environmental impact is such that an EIA is warranted. 


The River Nore is designated as a cSAC and pSPA (see Section  As with all developments, for any location within or adjacent to a Natura 2000 site, an assessment under Article 6 of the Habitats Directive will be required.  (See Section 1.3). 


As part of any planning application for a hydro electric scheme, an Environmental Management Plan will be required to address all environmental issues arising during the construction and operation of the scheme. 


9.8       Solar energy

The three main forms of solar energy are Passive Solar Design, Solar Heating and Solar Electricity. 

9.8.1       Passive Solar Design (PSD)

Virtually all buildings enjoy free energy and light from the sun; the objective in PSD is to maximise this benefit by using simple design approaches which intentionally enable buildings to function more effectively and provide a comfortable environment for living or working. PSD has always been a feature of traditional vernacular architecture.  A structure employing PSD is unlikely to cost more than a structure built without the benefit of passive solar design. Design, infrastructure and site layout are key to achieving energy efficient development by optimising passive solar gain in domestic and non-domestic buildings.   PSD is a central principle of the Guidelines on Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas[17]


9.8.2       Solar Heating

A solar collector is a device that captures solar heat and transfers it to heat water, most commonly for sanitary hot water production, or in cases where a building has a very low heat demand, then often for both space heating and hot water. Larger scale active solar thermal technologies can also be used for cooling and steam production. Steam produced in this way can be used to drive turbines for electricity production.

There are two types of collector; flat plate collectors or evacuated tube.  Building-mounted flat plate collectors can be positioned both "in-roof" and on-roof due to their structure (heavy, rigid, robust box-like structure). The efficiencies of flat plate collectors make them very suitable for domestic installations or for installations where very high temperatures aren't required.

Building-mounted evacuated tube collectors can only be mounted on-roof due to their lightweight structure, which is most commonly individual tubes mounted on a frame.  Evacuated tube collectors will provide approximately 20% more yield per m2 than flat plates, which means that less installed area is required for similar heat outputs.


9.8.3       Solar Electricity

The production of solar electricity relies heavily on active solar technology. The most commonly encountered system for solar electricity production is solar photovoltaic.  Solar photovoltaics (commonly referred to as "PV") is the term given to the conversion of light energy to electricity and also describes the active solar technology (Solar photovoltaic systems) which produces electricity from solar radiation using solar cells joined together in panels called PV modules.

PV systems exploit the direct conversion of daylight into electricity in a semiconductor device, with the most common form being a number of semi conductor cells which are interconnected and form a solar panel or module. There is considerable variation in appearance, but many solar modules are dark in colour and have low reflective properties. Solar modules are typically 0.5 to 1m² with a peak electrical output of 70 to 160 watts. A number of modules are usually connected together in an array, the area of which can vary from a few square metres to several hundred square metres. A typical array on a domestic property might have an area of 9 to 18m², and would produce 1 to 2 kW peak output[18]

Development Management Guidance

The Planning Authority will encourage and facilitate the development of passive solar design proposals for the development generally and will draw on the Guidelines on Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas for residential development

The Councils will consider impacts of overshadowing on the efficiency of existing solar technologies when assessing planning applications.

The main impact from the installation of solar energy technologies is visual.  The installation of solar panels on a building can impact on the building’s character.  There are exemptions contained within the Planning & Development Regulations 2001 to 2008 (S.I. No. 83 of 2007 and S.I. No. 235 of 2008), regarding the placing of solar technology on domestic structures, and on buildings used/associated with industrial, light industrial, business and agricultural purposes, subject to certain criteria.   Planning permission is required to install solar technology on a Protected Structure. Sensitive design and location is important so that the overall character is not diminished.

Public buildings and schools are not included within the Regulations. The Council will support applications to install solar panels on these buildings within the county should the opportunity arise.


Solar Energy objective 

The Planning Authority will make available advice on Passive Solar Design in preplanning consultations for domestic and commercial buildings.


9.9       Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy refers to heat energy stored in the ground.  Heat is supplied to the ground from two sources, namely the hot core of the planet and the sun.

Heat pump systems extract the heat stored in the ground (ground source heat pumps), bodies of water (water source heat pumps) or air (air source heat pumps). This heat can then be used to heat the spaces in buildings, heat water or enable a building to be cooled.  A heat pump looks similar and can perform the same functions as a conventional gas or oil boiler, i.e. space heating and sanitary hot water production. For every unit of electricity used to operate the heat pump, up to four units of heat are generated.

Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) operate on the fact that the ground maintains a constant temperature between 11oC and 13oC, several metres below the surface.  Ground source heat pumps use a 'closed loop' system of water/anti-freeze to collect the soil heat.  In general terms the ground area required for the collector is approximately equal to that of the foot-print of the house or building to be heated[19].

Air source heat pumps (ASHP) use the surrounding air as a heat source to heat a building.  Air source heat pumps can be located in the roof space or on the side of the building. They are similar in appearance to air conditioning boxes.

Water source heat pumps (WSHP) extract heat from large bodies of water or rivers.  These are generally 'open loop' collectors, i.e. the water is passed through and discarded, unlike the 'closed loop’ systems.

9.10  Sustainability & Energy Efficiency in Buildings

According to the EU, buildings account for 40% of total energy consumption in the Union[20].  Therefore, increasing energy efficiency in buildings has a huge role to play in meeting Ireland’s renewable energy targets.


9.10.1  Kilkenny Local Authorities Energy Efficiency

Kilkenny Local Authorities have adopted an Internal Climate Change Strategy and Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2010-2014 which has been developed in line with the National Climate Change Strategy 2007-2012.  An internal Climate Change Committee was established to implement this. 

Kilkenny Local Authorities have signed up to Energy Map training and an Energy Management Action

Plan delivered by Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI).  An Energy team was established under the Energy Map programme consisting of personnel from across the various sections.  In signing this agreement Kilkenny Local Authorities are committed to reducing their energy consumption by 33% by 2020.  It is acknowledged that only by ensuring that employees from all areas of the organisation are involved that a local authority can successfully integrate energy efficiency and management into its culture.


To review the progress of the Climate Change Strategy, report on the progress to date and thereafter develop a Climate Change Adaptation strategy and action plan in line with national policy. 


9.10.2  Energy Performance of Buildings

The 2002 EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD)[21] contained a range of provisions aimed at improving the energy performance of residential and non-residential buildings, both new and existing.  This Directive was adopted into Irish law as the Energy Performance of Buildings Regulations (S.I. No. 666 of 2006).


From 2013, the EPBD will be superseded by the recast EPBD[22].  Under the recast Directive, Member States must establish and apply minimum energy performance requirements for new and existing buildings, ensure the certification of building energy performance and require the regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings.  Moreover the Directive requires member states to ensure that by 2021 all new buildings are constructed as so-called ‘nearly zero-energy buildings’ and by 2019 new buildings occupied and owned by public authorities are nearly zero-energy buildings.  (A zero energy building means a building that has a very high energy performance.  The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby.) 

In Ireland, the Energy Performance of Buildings Regulations, (S.I. No. 666 of 2006) provides the regulatory framework for the time being.  Alternative Energy Systems for Large Buildings

For large buildings over 1,000m2, S.I. No. 666 of 2006 requires that due consideration has been given to the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of installing alternative energy systems in the proposed building, and that the use of such systems has been taken into account, as far as practicable, in the design of that building. 

The preferred methodology for assessing the feasibility of such alternative energy systems shall be the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland software tool or other acceptable methodology as defined in (S.I. No. 666 of 2006). 

This shall also apply to all new planning application for housing schemes of ten or more units.  Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure

Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) is the official Irish procedure for calculating and assessing the energy performance of dwellings.  Published by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI), the procedure takes account of the energy required, for space heating, ventilation, water heating and lighting, less savings from energy generation technologies.  It calculates both the CO2 emission rate and energy consumption per annum. This is a useful tool for designers when considering and comparing options to conserve energy and reduce CO2 emission.  The right design decisions in relation to building form, dwelling layout, levels of insulation, amount and orientation of glazing, utilisation of solar energy, heating system and fuel type, use of draught lobbies, construction materials and measures to conserve potable water, can contribute greatly to sustainability. In addition these will lead to cost savings, in the long term, while raising the level of comfort for the occupants of the dwelling.

DEAP is also used to calculate the Building Energy Rating (BER) of a dwelling.  The BER is a label containing the energy performance of the dwelling, expressed as primary energy use per unit floor area per year (kWh/m2/per annum) and illustrated as an Energy Rating (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, etc) for the dwelling, it also includes a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Indicator (kgCO2/m2/yr) associated with this energy use and an advisory report.  

Guidance and assistance on these and other matters pertaining to the sustainable use of energy is available from Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) and the Carlow Kilkenny Energy Agency. 


9.10.3  Building design

The Urban Design Manual[23] sets out how sustainable energy considerations should be incorporated into all stages of the design process. 


The Building Regulations, Part L – Conservation of Fuel and Energy – set out the requirements for dwellings[24] and for buildings other than dwellings[25].   In order to ensure that the Building Regulations are fully taken into account in the design of any proposed dwelling, it will be a requirement that all planning applications be accompanied by a provisional BER cert stating that the proposed dwelling is in accordance with the current Technical Guidance Document L - Conservation of fuel and energy.  Passive Houses         

A passive house1 is an energy-efficient building with year-round comfort and good indoor environmental conditions without the use of active space heating or cooling systems.  The Passivhaus Standard is a construction standard developed by the Passivhaus Institut in Germany

(  The Standard can be met using a variety of design strategies, construction methods and technologies and is applicable to any building type. 


Building Energy Performance Development Management Guidance

•                      Require a provisional BER certificate as part of any planning application, showing how the proposal will comply with Part L of the Building Regulations

•                      To require that planning applications for large buildings, as defined by the Energy Performance of Building Regulations, demonstrate that due consideration has been given to the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of installing alternative energy systems in the proposed building, and that the use of such systems has been taken into account, as far as practicable, in the design of that building.  This shall also apply to applications for ten or more housing units. 

•                      For large buildings over 1,000m2, and for housing developments of 10 or more houses it will be a requirement to demonstrate that due consideration has been given to the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of installing alternative energy systems.




[3] Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, National Renewable Energy Action Plan, 2010

[4] Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, Strategy for Renewable Energy 2012-2020, 2012

[5] For further information on REFIT, see the Dept.’s website at


[6] South East Regional Authority, Bioenergy Implementation Plan 2008-2013


[10] Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Wind Energy Development Guidelines for Planning Authorities, 2006

[12] Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Bioenergy Grant Scheme for Willow and Miscanthus, statistics obtained January 2013

[15] Central and Regional Fisheries Boards, & the Department of Communications, Marine & Natural Resources Guidelines on the Planning, Design, Construction and Operation of Small Scale Hydro-Electric Schemes and Fisheries, 2007

[17] Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Guidelines for Planning Authorities on Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas (Cities, Towns and Villages), 2009

[18] Technical Advice Note 8: Planning for Renewable Energy, Planning Policy Wales, Welsh Assembly

Government, July 2005, Page 46-47

[23] Department of Environment, Community and Local Government, Urban Design Manual, A best practice guide 2009


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