11. Transport

11   Transport

Strategic Aim: To co-ordinate transport and land use planning, reducing the demand for travel and the reliance on the private car in favour of public transport, cycling and walking. 

11.1   Sustainable Transport/Smarter Travel

In 2009 the Government published Smarter Travel-A Sustainable Transport Future- A New Transport Policy for Ireland 2009-2020[1].  The main objectives of this are:

  1. To encourage smarter travel, i.e. to reduce overall travel demand,
  2. To maximise the efficiency of the transport network,
  3. To reduce reliance on fossil fuels and therefore to reduce transport emissions, and
  4. To improve accessibility to transport

The Council will promote walking, cycling, public transport and other more sustainable forms of transport as an alternative to the private car, together with the development of the necessary infrastructure and promotion of the initiatives contained within Smarter Travel, A Sustainable Transport Future 2009 – 2020.


To investigate the establishment of a Transport Forum to oversee Transport policy of the county. 

11.1.1   Cycling and Walking

In line with Smarter Travel, the Plan will promote cycling and walking as efficient, fast and relatively inexpensive forms of transport.  The design and location of residential development can minimise the need for car journeys and by encouraging walking and cycling.  Providing a network of safe, well-lit and convenient footpaths and cycleways within new residential areas with links to schools, local neighbourhood centres, public transport stops and workplaces will encourage walking and cycling. 

Various initiatives can contribute to an increase in walking and cycling.  An example of this is the Walking bus, which consists of adults walking groups of pupils to and from school along set routes, with children joining the walking bus at various pick-up points along the route.  This programme encourages children to walk, and so get used to this means of travel.  

A National Cycle Policy Framework[2] was published in 2009.  This sets out a series of interventions and instruments to reverse the decline in cycling numbers, which includes planning and infrastructure measures.  The approach recommended is a hierarchy of measures, including:

  • reducing volumes of through-traffic, especially HGVs, in city and town centres and especially in the vicinity of schools and colleges;
  • calming traffic / enforcing low traffic speeds in urban areas;
  • making junctions safe for cyclists and removing the cyclist-unfriendly multi-lane one-way street systems.

Other interventions include the following:

  • Schools will be a strong focus of the National Cycle Policy Framework.
  • Support for the provision of dedicated signed rural cycling networks building on Fáilte Ireland’s Strategy to Develop Irish Cycling Tourism[3].  This will cater for recreational cyclists as well as visitors.
  • Ensuring that all surfaces used by cyclists are maintained to a high standard and are well lit.
  • Ensuring that all cycling networks – both urban and rural – are sign-posted to a high standard.
  • Supporting the provision of secure cycling parking at all destinations of importance to the cyclist.   Cycling Objective

The Council will implement the provisions of the National Cycle Policy Framework where possible.   Development Management Standard

Require planning applications to demonstrate the development proposal’s accessibility for pedestrians and cyclists.  Planning applications for residential/commercial or mixed use developments need to:

  1. Demonstrate detailed layouts and design which reflect the importance of walking and cycling by providing safe and direct access to local services and public transport nodes.
  2. Demonstrate how walking and cycling is integrated with open space provision.
  3. Demonstrate that the proposal is easily accessible to pedestrians and cyclists alike with the layouts displaying high internal pedestrian and cyclist permeability.
  4. Show a high quality of internal routes which are safe, secure and convenient for users.
  5. Require that adequate covered facilities for the secure parking of bicycles are provided at convenient locations close to building entrances in order to encourage cycling.  The number of bicycle parking spaces required will be in accordance with Table T1 below.   
  6. Require a full range of facilities for cyclists and pedestrians such as showers and lockers in new retail/employment developments, where the cycle parking requirements exceed 5 spaces.


Table 11.1: Bicycle parking requirements

Land Use

Bicycle Parking Requirement

GFA = gross floor area


Apartment, Townhouse

1 space per unit

Student Accommodation/Residential schools, colleges or training centre

1 space per bedroom and 1 visitor space per 5 bed spaces

Guest Houses and Hotels

1 space per 10 bedrooms and 1 space for every 5 members of staff

Nursing Homes

1 visitor space for every 10 residents and 1 space for every 5 members of staff

Retirement Homes/Sheltered Accommodation

1 visitor space for every 6 residents and 1 space for every 5 members of staff


1 space per 5 beds


To be determined by Planning Authority



1 space per 150sq m GFA

Shopping Centre

1 space per 300sq m GFA

Non food Retail

1 space per 300sq m GFA

Retail Warehouse

1 space per 250sq m GFA

Retail Offices

1 space per 200sq m GFA

Food and Drink

1 space per 50sq m of dining/drinking area


General Offices

1 space per 50sq m GFA

Light Industry, Business and Technology

1 space per 100sq m GFA

Warehouses and Distribution

1 space per 200sq m GFA

Financial and Professional Services

1 space per 50sq m GFA

Culture, Leisure and Sports Use


1 space for every 5 members of staff and 1 space per 30 seats

Museums, Exhibition Venues

1 space for every 5 members of staff. Visitors spaces to be determined by Planning Authority

Sports/Fitness Centre including Swimming Baths

1 space for every 50sq m net floor area or 1 space for every 30sq m of pool area and 1 space for every 30 seats provided for spectators

Non-Residential Institutions

Place of Worship, public halls and community centres

1 space per 20 persons

Primary schools

Cycle spaces to be provided for 20% of children and 1 space for every 5 members of staff

Post primary schools

Cycle spaces to be provided for 33% of children and 1 space for every 5 members of staff

Further and Higher Education

1 space per 5 members of staff and 1 space for every 4 students


1 space for every 5 members of staff and 1 space for 20 children


1 space for every 5 members of staff and 0.5 spaces per consulting room


In the case of any use not specified above, the Council will determine the bicycle parking requirements, having regard to the likely trip generation of the development.  Where a number of uses are contained within one development, and the applicant can demonstrate that parking spaces will be utilised throughout the day by a number of different users, the Council may take this into account when assessing the spaces required.  

In general, bicycle parking facilities should be within 25m of a destination for short term parking (shops) and 50m for long term parking (offices, schools etc).  Cycle stands should generally be protected from the weather, in particular all long term (more than 3 hours) cycle stands.

11.2   Workplace Travel Plans

Developments which have a large potential impact on trip generation may be required to draw up and implement Workplace Travel Plans (also known as Mobility Management Plans).  Workplace Travel Plans are a mechanism by which developments can manage the mobility needs of their users and work towards reduced car dependency. 

Development for which a Workplace Travel Plan could be applied includes the following:

•             Office

•             Office based industry

•             Other industry

•             Retail (large one-off stores and major town/district centre developments)

•             Retail warehousing

•             Warehousing and distribution

•             Places of education

A Workplace Travel Plan may take the form of a formally published document, which outlines its measures and targets. Alternatively it may simply evolve over time as different initiatives are piloted.  

Development Management Standard 

To require Workplace Travel Plans for proposed trip intensive developments and for town centre developments where onsite parking cannot accommodate the parking standards set out in this plan.

11.3   Public Transport

The development of public transport is critical in achieving more sustainable travel patterns and a reduced reliance on the car.  The local authority does not provide any public transport services but can facilitate their provision through infrastructural works. 

The Council will co-operate with the various public and private agencies responsible for transport services within the County in the provision of new services and supporting infrastructure. 

11.3.1   Rail

There are two passenger railway lines in use in the county.  A spur from Kilkenny City at Lavistown connects to the Dublin-Waterford main passenger line.  The Waterford-Limerick passenger line runs in the south of the county, serving Waterford and Carrick-on-Suir stations.  Belview Port is served by rail, connecting to the Waterford line, which facilitates the movement of freight.

The Regional Planning Guidelines[4] set out priority rail improvements for the South East Region. This included increased frequency of services and reduced journey times between Waterford, Kilkenny, Carlow and Dublin.  It also included improvements to the Rosslare-Waterford-Limerick Junction line (although the Rosslare to Waterford connection is no longer operational since 2010).  The Council supports increased frequency of services and reduced journey times between Kilkenny and Waterford/Dublin.

Rail Freight

There is major potential for more innovative and additional carriage of freight via the rail network.  The Regional Planning Guidelines identified that rail cargo depots at Belview and Maddockstown (east of Kilkenny city) would facilitate the development of logistics businesses at these locations and would help to divert some heavy commercial traffic from the public road network.  There are enormous environmental benefits in carrying freight using rail and properly run freight services offer huge potential to industry in the region, particularly at Belview. The use of the rail network for freight services will be promoted through appropriate land use measures. 

There are two disused rail lines in the county; the Waterford to New Ross line and the Kilkenny to Ballyragget/Attanagh line, with a spur to Castlecomer.  A feasibility study is underway for a greenway along the Ballyragget line (See section 7.2.2 Recreation).  The track-bed of the Waterford-New Ross railway line shall be preserved for future re-opening and and/or cycling or walking use. 

11.3.2   Bus

In areas of low to medium population, bus-based public transport can offer the most flexible means of providing services both for urban and inter-urban travel and can be introduced within a short time frame and at relatively low cost.  Bus Éireann and a number of private operators operate services throughout County Kilkenny. 

Kenneally’s bus operates a regular city bus service in Waterford city, serving the area north of the bridge, including Ferrybank and Slieverue. 

The Waterford Planning, Land Use and Transportation Study[5] (PLUTS) proposed a cross-city bus (Green) route linking Belview and the North Quays to the existing City Centre and WIT.  It is an objective of the Waterford City Draft Development Plan (2012) to complete the implementation of all remaining Green Routes phases during the lifetime of the new Development plan (2013-2019).

In conjunction with this, the PLUTS proposed a Park and Ride facility on the northern side of Waterford city.  It is an objective of the Waterford City Draft Development Plan (2012) that a detailed study will be carried out, in co-operation with the neighbouring Local Authorities, to identify a specific optimum site location for the R711 (Belmount Road) Park and Ride facility.

Kilkenny County Council will co-operate in the development of a high-quality bus-based public transport system in the Waterford City & Environs and in the identification of an optimum site for a Park and Ride facility.   Bus Objectives

To facilitate the provision of bus shelters as appropriate.

To facilitate parking provision for tourist buses in towns and villages and at tourist attractions.   Ring a Link Rural Transport Initiative

In 2002 a community transport company, known as Ring a Link, began operations in the three county area of Carlow, Kilkenny and South Tipperary, offering innovative flexible transport services using a 'Demand Respond Transport' (DRT) system.  DRT is based on the concept that instead of running a fixed route system, the transport operator will offer flexible routes and services suitable to the area and the prospective customers.  Funded by central Government and administered locally, what was originally a pilot project has been put on a permanent footing since 2006.  (See section 6.4.)


11.4   Ports & Rivers

The Regional Planning Guidelines note that the ports of Belview, New Ross and Rosslare are of strategic importance to the region. 

New Ross Port is Ireland’s only inland port, some 32 kilometres from the sea on the River Barrow.  New Ross Port Company operates from Marshmeadows, to the east of the Barrow in Co. Wexford.  Stafford’s Shipping yard is in operation in Rosbercon, in Co. Kilkenny.   Belview

Belview port was developed in 1992 and its subsequent growth has been a significant driver of economic development in the county.  Belview is located on the River Suir about 10 miles upstream from the open sea, adjacent to the Dublin/Waterford M9 motorway.  An Area Action Plan for Belview was completed in 2002, which aimed to provide for portal and industrial development within a planning framework which safeguarded local environmental resources.  To update this, a Local Area Plan (LAP) was made for the area of Ferrybank and Belview in 2009[6]

During the course of the last Development Plan the Council along with the Ida and Department of Environment Community and Local Government invested significantly in upgrading water services at Belview. With improvements to the Belview Strategic Water Supply Scheme and the Gorteens Waste Water Treatment Plant, the port can now cater for a large increase in suitable employment enterprises, as set out in the LAP. 

Belview is served by the Limerick to Rosslare line.  Belview has direct access, via the N29 road, to and from National Primary Route N25 (Euroroute E30). 

Belview was identified in the Regional Planning Guidelines as containing potential for the development of an industrial park of regional and national importance and this should be exploited by developing it as a flagship location for regional industrial development initiatives.  IDA Ireland owns the Belview Strategic Site, which is suitable for large-scale projects[7].

The Council will facilitate and promote portal development and associated industrial and distribution activities.


11.5   Airports

The Council recognises the importance of air travel in improving the attractiveness of the county for industrial, commercial and tourism development.  The nearest airport to Kilkenny is the South-East Regional Airport, located close to Tramore Bay, south of Waterford City centre. 

11.5.1   Kilkenny Airfield

There is a privately owned public use airfield located three miles to the west of Kilkenny City.  Principally it has a leisure use but it does have potential for expansion.

The Council will support the continued development of airport facilities at Kilkenny aerodrome and will facilitate the future development of Kilkenny aerodrome by reserving air corridors as necessary.

11.6   Universal Design

Street design must be inclusive and provide for all, regardless of age, size, disability or ability.  Streets and footpaths should be designed in accordance with the principles of Universal Design, as set out in Building for Everyone: A Universal Design Approach, External Environment and Approach[8].  The Council will ensure as far as feasible that areas are accessible to the broadest range of users, based on the principles of Universal Design.  (See section 12.3)


11.7   Road Network

11.7.1   Achievements

Since the last Development Plan, two motorways; the M8 and M9 have opened, which have resulted in increased accessibility through the county.  The section of the N25 in the south of the county bypassing Waterford was also completed, including the second River Suir bridge. 


11.7.2   National Road Network

The national road network caters for the efficient and safe movement of long distance traffic.  The network also provides strategic links for the towns within the county and within the South-East region as a whole.  In order to protect the investment in these roads and to maintain their primary function, it will be necessary to restrict access and junctions to the network to a minimum.

There are 8 national roads in the county as follows:

Road name





Between the M9/N24 roundabout and the N25 junction at Grannagh



Kilkenny-Danesfort (M9 junction )



Carrick-on-Suir – Grannagh






Belview access











11.7.3   Access to National Roads

National policy in relation to access to national roads is set out in the Spatial Planning and National Roads Guidelines[9] and followed here. The Guidelines state that “The policy of the Planning Authority will be to avoid the creation of any additional access point from new development or the generation of increased traffic from existing accesses to national roads to which speed limits greater than 60kmh apply. This provision applies to all categories of development, including individual houses in rural areas, regardless of the housing circumstances of the applicant.[10]

It is the intention of the Planning Authority to develop and agree a policy for two sites with access off the national roads in conjunction with the NRA; Glanbia at Ballyconra, Ballyragget and the Leggetsrath roundabout on the N10. 

Objective: To develop and agree an appropriately planned policy response to access for Glanbia and the Leggetsrath roundabout in conjunction with the National Roads Authority.   N29 Belview Port

The N29 National route was developed to service the Belview Port area.  A speed limit of 100 kph currently applies along this route.  Section 2.6 of the Spatial Planning and National Roads Guidelines provides for exceptional circumstances, where planning authorities may identify stretches of national roads where a less restrictive approach may be applied.  Such a less restrictive approach may be adopted in the case of developments of national and regional strategic importance, which by their nature are most appropriately located outside urban areas, and where the locations concerned have specific characteristics that make them particularly suitable for the developments proposed. (See section 4.2.6 economic development.)

As set out in the Regional Planning Guidelines, Belview Port is of strategic importance to the region.  The lands around the port are designated for industrial and port related services, which will benefit from high quality access, including intermodal transfer facilities (from port to rail and road).   In this case, the Port satisfies the criteria of exceptional circumstances, and the NRA agree that a less restrictive approach may apply. 

It is the intention of the Planning Authority to develop and agree a policy for the N29 in conjunction with the NRA.

Objective: To develop and agree an appropriately planned policy response to access from the N29 Port road to industrial zoned lands in the Belview area in conjunction with the National Roads Authority.


11.7.4   Regional Roads

Regional roads provide important strategic linkages within the county and to the national road network and other counties.  In order to protect the investment in these roads and to maintain their strategic function it will be necessary to exercise control over new development requiring access to these roads by restricting new access points to a minimum in the interests of safety. 

11.7.5   Local Roads

In its programme of spending over the plan period, the Council will prioritise its spending on local roads which are deficient according to the strategic benefits and improved traffic and pedestrian safety which will result. The Council will have regard to the transportation needs of development generally, particularly that associated with agribusiness, tourism and the need to promote rural development and diversification in the prioritising of its spending.

11.7.6   Road improvement projects

The Council, with the support of the NRA, is progressing/developing a number of schemes within County Kilkenny as follows:

  • N24 Mooncoin bypass
  • N24 Tower Road Overbridge
  • N24 Carrick on Suir bypass
  • N25 Waterford – Glenmore & N25 New Ross Bypass
  • N76 Callan Road realignment
  • N77 Ballynaslee
  • N77 Hennebry’s Cross roundabout
  • N78 Damerstown Improvement Scheme

The Regional Planning Guidelines also identified regional roads which provide critical linkages. Improvements to this road network will enhance connectivity between the Hubs, County Towns and neighbouring regions. The priorities as identified by the RPGs which affect Kilkenny are:

  • Upgrading of the R700 Kilkenny to New Ross to National Secondary status
  • Support the completion of the Kilkenny Ring Road
  • The development of a downstream river crossing in Waterford City

In addition to the above, the Council also has the following priorities: 

  • A relief road for Thomastown.
  • An upgrade of the Kilkenny to Urlingford road (R693) to National Secondary status
  • An upgrade of the New Ross to Mullinavat Regional Road (R704) to National Secondary status


11.7.7   Traffic Assessments

Development proposals may generate significant trips/travel, including road traffic, with potentially significant implications for national and non-national roads.  Traffic and Transport Assessment is a methodology used to assess the transport impacts of a proposed development, incorporating any subsequent measures necessary to ensure roads and junctions and other transport infrastructure in the vicinity of the development remain fit for purpose and encourage a shift towards sustainable travel modes.

11.7.8   Road Safety Audit

A road safety audit can aid in the identification of any appropriate measures required to maintain safety standards.  Guidance on the preparation of road safety audits is included in the NRA Design Manual for Roads and Bridges[11]   Road Objectives

  • To support the implementation of the NRA projects as outlined above. 
  • To preserve free from development proposed road realignment/improvement lines and associated corridors where such development would prejudice the implementation of National Roads Authority or County Council plans (See Figure 11.1)
  • To seek an upgrade of the R700 between New Ross and Kilkenny to National Secondary status and to provide a relief road for Thomastown.
  • To seek an upgrade of the Kilkenny to Urlingford Road (R693) to National Secondary status and to improve the road realignment in its entirety. 
  • To seek an upgrade of the New Ross to Mullinavat Regional Road (R704). 
  • Reserve the proposed line of the western bypass for the city from the Castlecomer Road to the Callan Road free from development.   Roads Development Management Standard

  • To ensure that future development affecting national primary or secondary roads shall be assessed in accordance with the guidance given in Spatial Planning and National Roads - Guidelines for Planning Authorities.
  • To maintain, develop and improve existing roads and to construct new roads as needs arise and resources permit in accordance with the Annual Roadworks programme. 
  • To co-operate with the National Roads Authority to identify the need for service areas and/or rest areas for motorists along the routes of the M8/M9 and to assist in the implementation of suitable proposals for provision of  service and/or rest areas.   
  • Restrict new access points to a minimum on Regional Roads to preserve their strategic function and in the interests of traffic safety.
  • To ensure that the required standards for sight distances and stopping sight distances are in compliance as far as possible, with current road geometry standards as outlined in the NRA document Design Manual for Roads and Bridges[12] (DMRB) specifically Section TD 41-42/09 when assessing planning applications for individual houses in the countryside.  Such standards should not be achieved by the extensive removal of hedgerows, ditches, embankments, trees or old walls, and should be in accordance with Section 2.8 of the Rural Design Guide[13]
  • All significant development proposals will be required to have transport and traffic assessments carried out in accordance with the publication Traffic Management Guidelines[14] and the Traffic and Transport Assessment Guidelines[15] (where the development affects a national road).    
  • Planning applications involving a new access or significant changes to an existing access to a national road, are required to include a Road Safety Audit. 

11.7.9   Car parking

In assessing development proposals the Planning Authority will use the standards set out in the Table below.  Such facilities shall cater for the immediate and anticipated future demands of the development, and where car parking provision on site is not possible, or desirable for other valid reasons, the Council may consider the payment of a financial contribution in lieu. 

Where car parking is provided on site, spaces shall generally be provided behind established building lines in each development and shall be screened.  The dimension of car parking bays shall be 4.8m by 2.4m.  Disabled parking bay (including transfer hatching to side and rear) shall be 6.0m x 3.7m. Developers should consult Building for Everyone: A Universal Design Approach.  Car parking areas shall be constructed having regard to drainage, surfacing and ancillary matters.  They should be provided with proper public lighting facilities and shall be clearly demarcated.  All car parking areas should be properly landscaped by the provision of trees, shrubs and grassed areas in order to ensure that damage to the visual amenities is avoided.  In residential schemes parking should be secure and attractive and should be provided as close as possible to the dwellings served.

In all developments of an industrial or commercial nature, developers will be required to provide loading or unloading facilities sufficient to meet the demand of such development.  Off-street loading facilities shall conform to the following requirements:

Each required space shall not be less than 3.75m in width, 6.0m in length and 4.25m in height, exclusive of drives and manoeuvring space and located entirely on the site being served. 

There shall be appropriate means of access to a street or road as well as adequate manoeuvring space. 

The maximum width of the driveway opening onto the street boundary will be 6m and the minimum width shall be 3.75m. 

The Planning Authority may modify the requirements of loading and unloading facilities in any particular case where it considers it would be in the interests of proper planning and sustainable development of the area to do so.  On greenfield sites, parking and service spaces must be located on site so as to prevent street obstruction and should be located where possible to the rear and side of the buildings and in such a manner to ensure minimal impact on the amenity of adjoining properties.


Table 11.2: Car Parking Standards

Land Use                                            

Parking Spaces per Unit

Dwelling House


2 car parking spaces per unit

0.25 spaces per unit for visitor parking


1.25 spaces per unit       

0.25 spaces per unit for visitor parking


1 space for every classroom plus 4 additional spaces

Churches, theatres,  public halls

1 car space per 10 seats

Hotels, hostels and guesthouses

1 car space per bedroom


Public houses, inc hotel bar

1 car space per 10 m2 of bar and lounge floor area

Hotel function rooms                                                               

1 space per 10 m2

Shopping centres, supermarkets, Department stores

1 space per 25 m2 gross floor area



1 space per 20 m2 gross floor area

Restaurants, cafes                               

1 car space per 20 m2 gross floor area

Banks and offices                                               

1 car space per 15 m2 of gross floor area and additional space to be determined by the Planning Authority


1 car space for every 60m2 of gross industrial floor area and operational space to be determined by the
Planning Authority.


Each application will be determined by the Planning Authority

Retail Warehousing

1 car space for every 35 m2 of net retail floor space.


4 car spaces per hole

Par 3 golf courses or Pitch and Putt courses

2 spaces per hole

Sports grounds and  sports clubs

I space per 15m2

Golf driving ranges,  Shooting ranges

1 space per bay/ trap plus 3 spaces

Clinics and Medical Practices

3 car spaces per consulting room plus staff


1.50 spaces per bed

Nursing Home

1 space per 4 bedrooms plus staff


1 space per 4 children plus 1 space per


In the case of any use not specified above, the Planning Authority will determine the parking requirements, having regard to the traffic levels likely to be generated as a result of the development. 

Where a number of uses are contained within one development, the various uses shall be separated and the overall parking requirements for the development shall be assessed relative to each separate use in order to compute the overall parking requirement for the development (e.g. in a hotel the function rooms, bars etc. shall be assessed as separate from the bedroom provision).

However, where a developer can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Planning Authority that parking spaces will be utilised throughout the day by a number of different users, availing of different facilities within a proposed development, the Planning Authority may, in the interest of sustainability, take this multi use into account when assessing parking needs.  In addition to the above requirements, developers will be required to provide and maintain loading and circulation facilities sufficient to meet the likely demand of each development. 

In cases where complete on-site provision of parking is not possible, the Planning Authority will insist on a Mobility Management Plan submitted as part of the application in weighing up the total requirements and possible financial contribution. 


11.7.10   Electric vehicles

As outlined in the National Renewable Energy Action Plan[16], the Government has a target for 10% of Ireland’s vehicles to be electric by 2020.  Developing the infrastructure for alternatively fuelled vehicles will be a vital step in encouraging consumers to make more environmentally friendly transport choices.  ESB is responsible for the roll out of electric car charge points in Ireland.  The Council will support the Government’s target on Electric vehicles by facilitating the roll out of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. 


[5] Waterford PLUTS, 2004

[6] Kilkenny County Council, Ferrybank Belview Local Area Plan, 2009

[8] Centre for Excellence in Universal Design, Building for Everyone: A Universal Design Approach, External Environment and Approach

[9] Department of Environment, Community and Local Government, Spatial Planning and National Roads - Guidelines for Planning Authorities, 2012

[10] Section 2.5 of Spatial Planning and National Roads, 2012 

[11] National Roads Authority, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

[12] National Roads Authority, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

[13] Kilkenny County Council, Rural Design Guide, 2008


[14] Department of Environment & Local Government, Department of Transport, Dublin Transportation Office, Traffic Management Guidelines (2003)

[15] National Roads Authority, Traffic and Transport Assessment Guidelines, 2007

[16] Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010


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